Scientific works

Selected R & D

1. 1982-1984 he has developed virtual computer called PMC/SDM (Simple Digitalal Machine) placed on the platform of then mainframe compatible with ICL-1900 (Odra – 1300 series). After further development of design & implementation it was renamed as Dydactic Computer simulated in real machine. It has had its own operating system, programer’s editor compatible with that of George 3 (OS) of ICL-1900 and emulated work of real computer showing the command (machine language) cycle as well as of the assembler. It among others was showing the status of processor eg: instruction counter, state of command register, fast registers, RAM and so on, step after step. It was very helpful to understand how the computer works for students, and was used for several years at my university during training in the subject “Foundation of computer science”.


2. 1983 he developed two advanced program generators for ICL-1900 series (ODRA 1305) for automatic creation of programs as part of some processes in MIS (Management Information Systems). They were equipped with its own translators (syntax and semantics was compatible to DATA DIVISION part of Cobol language, what enormously shorten the creation of programs. It was used for didactics purposes at my university.


3. During 1983-84 he designed and implemented language for operations on fuzzy sets building translator for this. Before that he built two program generators for ICL-1900 series/Odra 1300.


4. In 1985 implemented the first version of his PC-Expert expert system shell in Prolog (probably the first Polish this kind of a tool). This system was equipped with its own knowledge representation language and translator. It was able to conduct forward, backward as well as mixed reasoning. It had wide range of explanation facilities, among others: how, why, why not and what is explanations. An example of the original consultation with application called “Urologist” of that system is below:

PCE: Please let me know facts concerning your case:

|  patient_1 has urinary tract infection;

|  end;

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 has had catherization?

Answer {y/n/u}| n

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 has had cystoscopy?

Answer {y/n/u}| y

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 has sterile urine culture?

Answer {y/n/u}| y

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 is receiving cancer chemotherapy?

Answer {y/n/u}| n

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 is receiving chronic steroids?

Answer {y/n/u}| y

PCE: Is it true that patient_1 has tb bacteremia?

Answer {y/n/u}| why

PCE: At this stage of reasoning I want to verify hypothesis that:

     Identity of the urinary organism is tubercle bacillus

To this end I have to prove that every condition of the following rule is true:

Identity of the urinary organism is tubercle bacillus  if

     patient_1 has urinary tract infection  and

     patient_1 has sterile urine culture  and

     patient_1 has disseminated tb  and  ;


At present I want to confirm that condition no. 3 of that rule is true. To this end I have to prove that

Every condition of the following rule is true:


patient_1 has disseminated tb  if

     patient_1 is immunosupressed host  and

     patient_1 has tb bacteremia ;


At present I want to confirm that condition no. 2 of that rule is true. I don’t know any fact or rule about it, so I was forced to ask you that question. I am still waiting for your answer:

Answer {y/n/u}| y

PCE: My conclusions are:

identity of the urinary organism is enterococcus

identity of the urinary organism is tubercle bacillus

PCE: Do you want explanations of the conclusion(s)?

Answer {y/n}| n

where: {y/n/u} oznacza wybór {yes, no, unknown}.

Source of medical knowledge among others: Walker M.G. et al., Minimycin.  M.D. Computing, Int. Journal, July/August, vol. 2, no. 4, 1985.

5. During 1987-1988 he has built with co-operation with dr. eng. Tomasz Gutt from Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw  the domain-dependant expert system application called Diagnosta MC14007 (Diagnostician), for diagnosis of electronic chips production process. It has reached the status of research prototype. The tool applied was the PC-Expert and it was seroius verification of correctness of some solution being invented.

6. In 1990 Krzysztof Michalik has finished the first version of his hybrid expert system shell called PC-Shell. It was the first commercial tool of that class. PC-Shell is still “alive” and available in older version on this site here. It is hybrid because it combines declarative rule-based representation as well as procedural (block control) as well as it joins together expert system and neural nets processing using strong integration model. The PC-Shell has been written in pure “C” language.

7. In 1990 at the same time, after successful tests of the PC-Shell 1.0 software, he decided to set up the first Polish company – commercial laboratory: AITECH Artificial Intelligence Laboratory – specializing in AI software, especially expert systems with applications, mainly in credit risk assesments (banking) and medicine (e.g. psychiatry: co-operation with dr. K. Kielan). At present AITECH still exists over twenty years ! Author was the only owner of that firm.

8. Since 1991/1992 he began development of computer aided knowledge engineering tool called CAKE. The tool originally called: dbMaker, then kmMaker/kbBuilder and and eventually developed into a system CAKE. The part of the CAKE is module with creators to build knowledge base without exact knowledge about the syntax of the knowledge representation (knowledge base description) language with translator to it. Important part of the CAKE system is V&V (verification & validation) module.

9.  In 1992/1993 started development Neuronix – artificial neural networks simulator, fully integrated with hybrid expert system shell  PC-Shell. Neuronix was/is equipped with the same translator as the PC-Shell system, so the applications were to some degree portable between Neuronix and PC-Shell and vice versa. This fact determined the strong flexibility of both of them.

10. In 1994 PC-Shell received an award at international software fairs !

11. About 1994 started works  on artificial software package called SPHINX which included among others fully integrated: PC-Shell, Neuronix and CAKE systems. The SPHINX package was available The package was available (still is being in many places) on most Polish universities ! At the homesite is available shortened reference list.

12.  In 1996 SPHINX received an award at international software fairs !

13.  In 1997 SPHINX received an award at international software fairs !

14.  About 1997/1998 author started design of the system HybRex, being strongly hybrid environment for building intelligent decision support systems (DSS).

15. Since 1998, after full implementation of the project HybRex creation of very flexible Inteligent Decision Support System Aitech DSS  has started. The success of that system was later implementation in many bank organizations and companies, among others : Bank BISE S.A., Banks GBW/SGB (almost 100 units of cooperative banks), energy sector etc.

16. In 2000 SPHINX received an award of Polish Computer Society at international software fairs !

17. After the 2000 3 more systems were added to the package: deTreex and dialogEditor and prototype Predyktor (system for prognosis using statistical and neural net methods).

18.  During 2000-2012 at the time they were developed further versions of the SPHINX AI package and the next implementations of the Aitech DSS took places.

19.  He also wrote several conventional programs for business (MIS), not having an academic nature, being strictly commercial ones in practice as well as prototype translator for computer Mińsk 22 (about 1977)

20.  Now he is involved in the design and development of an idea of the LOGOS project & system, being successor of the Aitech SPHINX artificial intelligence software package.

21. He conducted – beside university – numerous training sessions for the practitioners from the corporations and business sector.

Membership in professional associations

Krzysztof Michalik was or still is a member of the following professional associations and organizations:

  • The New York Academy of Sciences (USA),
  • AAAI – The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (USA),
  • IEEE Computer Society (USA),
  • INNS – International Neural Networks Society (USA),
  • The Planetary Society (USA),
  • Polish Computer Science Society – Polskie Towarzystwo Informatyczne,
  • Polish Artificial Intelligence Society – Polskie Stowarzyszenie Sztucznej Inteligencji,
  • Polish Knowledge Management Society – Polskie Stowarzyszenie Zarządzania Wiedzą,
  • Skeptics Polish Club – Klub Sceptyków Polskich (the aim is to fight against pseudoscience).